Paper to be presented in USA 2008
Measurement of Educational Service Provision in Cambodia:An Application of Gini-Coefficient in 24 Provinces and Cities in Cambodiaby IM Keun Supervisor:Dr. Yuto Kitamura, and Dr. Chet Chealy
In terms of human right security, human capital development, and economic development, education is crucial to buildup human intellectual with critical thought, skilled labor, and innovative think tank for the country. Plus, alleviating poverty and disparity to response globalization and regional integration trend, and economic transaction, education for all (EFA) is vital. Implementing EFA policy, all countries seek for best strategies to tackle educational disparity and inequality within the nation. Thus, education reform and decentralization have been implemented and policies are made adapting to various situations and cultural context. Policy makers need to have accurate information and reliable research results to make right educational policies that efficiently serve the purpose. This paper describes and analyses the distribution of educational service for the Cambodian school level and population through series of years comparatively. Analyzing on results within all provinces-cities, the author highlights the disparity in various key provinces-cities both efficiency and gender gap, specifically in the period of educational reform and implementation of sector wide approach. To date, education gini–coefficient is the most reliable tool for effective policies analysis choice. Using such superior tool, the educational policy-makers can grasp the various aspects within provinces–cities and nationwide for consideration in formulating policies for specific regions with efficiency helping achieving EFA goals on time.
Oversea Field Work 2007
Group leader view reflected from the OFW 2007 experience
December 01, 2007
For human right security, human capital development, and economic development, education is crucial to buildup human intellectual with critical thought, skilled labor, and innovative think tank for the country. Plus, alleviating poverty and disparity to response globalization and regional integration trend, and economic transaction, education for all (EFA) is vital. Education reform and decentralization have been implemented and policies are made to tackle educational disparity and inequality within the nation. Since, our overseas fieldwork was conducted in Cambodia, one of the stabilized developing countries to date, we target to promote education’s enrollment and parity at school level. Our pre-research sector analysis provide us picture of bottleneck in lower secondary school level lead us to dig out for perceptions among various stakeholders towards schooling in this level. Gaps among their perception and complex root cause of their rational were mainly focused.
We found that dilemma among parents and children towards schooling, leading from several root causes, as well as the gaps among various actors, and within the actor still exist. Complexity of related root cause leading to decision on schooling was revealed. It is beyond our thought before the fieldwork for such interesting result, that we came up with additional conceptual framework to explain analysis and conclusion. Without data from fieldwork, these essences could not be revealed, as the scarcity existence of related literature says. Through PRA method, our group utilized semi-structure interview and was transitionally split into sub groups to interview at various village parts. This supply use satisfied result.
Personally, conducting such fieldwork in my country made me feel mostly like domestic fieldwork and lead me to see high advantage to join such opportunity. Contexts and language advantage made me smoothly cooperated with the target local authorities and stakeholders. Plus, opinions on flexibility, opportunity analysis were advanced through systematic group meeting during the fieldwork. Mutual trust, patience, individual’s value, and benefit sharing are crucial to make effective teamwork. I think this experience is vital since it equips students starting to become good independent or team researcher(s) in the future, no matter in what set of research. Hence, sweet memory lasts and looks like recent. To me, learning more from the teamwork, friendship become more strengthen, the image of the field, and the time we spent is a keepsake.
Finally, we deeply appreciate the professors and students from Royal University of Phnom Penh (RUPP) counterpart for their great assistance, Dr. YUTO Kitamura, our group advisor, for his crucial advice and facilitation, and Mr. Shunsuke Kambayashi, our assistant. Without their cooperation and assistance, our research could not be done successfully.
Copyright @ IM Keun (group leader)
May 15, 2006
Measurement of Educational Service Provision in Cambodia:An Application of Gini-Coefficient in 24 Provinces and Cities in Cambodia
Thesis in Partial Fulfillment to complete Master’s Degree,
by Im Keun
In terms of Human right security, Human capital development, and Economic development within nations and regions, Education is inevitably accounted into vital consideration because it is the only tool that builds up human intellectual ability in critically thinking behavior and applying skills with dignity into the labor force of each society. Reaching and progressing of the 21st century period, globalization and regional integration have been accepted to be the secure strategy in maintaining Human right law, prospective sustainable peace within nations, and the poverty alleviation strategy. Realizing this three stances, United Nations and UNESCO with collaboration of other nations, set up the integral educational policy of “Education for All” which, secondly held in Dakar, Senegal, elegantly determined that all countries in the world must, by all means, accomplish by 2015. In consideration to the decision of accepting and implementing the “Education for All (EFA)” policy, all countries try to find out the best strategy to eliminate educational disparity and inequality within his nation. Decentralization and Education reform have been implemented. Then, educational policies are made adapting to various situations and cultures within the regions. By doing this, policies makers need to have exact information as well as reliable research results to consider in making the right educational policies that efficiently serve to the purpose of achieving each step in “Education for All” implementation. This paper describes and analyses the distribution of education attainment for the Cambodian school level and population. The education Gini coefficient as a measure of the distribution of education attainment at the provincial and city levels, is a better-quality tool for effective policies analysis. By gathering such superior tool in describing and analyzing coefficient of education attainment, the educational policies makers can grasp the various aspects within provinces, cities and countries; then formulate the right programs for those specific regions and faction to make or upgrade the efficiency of educational reform in achieving the goals of EFA on time. In the mean of participating to develop human resources and enhance the educational system, this research has been done with high willingness and consciousness. This research aims to find out the efficiency of the use of the financial support from Priority Action Program (PAP) through Gini Coefficient indicator and the use of Lorenz curve in the process of decentralization by which power and decisions are handed over to the related basements and community. This is the first research related to Gini coefficient in Educational Inequality Measurement in Cambodia done by a Khmer graduate student from Royal Academy of Cambodia of Kingdom of Cambodia. Based on this result, this research also aims to provide recommendation to the government on determining how the flow of financial distribution from the central bank to the schools in communities would be distributed. There has been a recently researched topic related to this thesis by which Dr. Donald B. Holsinger has conducted recently on south-east Asian countries including the Kingdom of Cambodia. In his research, Dr. Donald B. Holsigner research on all levels of education attainment in the whole country (from basic education to higher education) using census data in Cambodia 1998. During that year, most provinces and cities have not attained enough financial support from PAP yet. In addition, in his research, Dr. Donald B. Holsinger stated his future research on “a longitudinal study of the education Gini coefficient of enrollment for Cambodian from 1998 to 2003” in which he wants to evaluate whether enrollment at primary, lower secondary, and upper secondary levels for the 24 provinces and municipalities of Cambodia are becoming more or less equal. As a result the follow up research 2004-2005 needs to be conducted in order to double check the result that have been conducted, as well as, a new research accomplishment in respond to Dr. Donald B. Holsinger’s future research determined. By using Gini coefficient formula and statistics program in computer, this research have analyzed and compared the efficiency of educational service provision within 6 years, i.e. from academic year 1998-1999 to 2003-2004.
Essentially, accepting the policy of regional integration and globalization is the progress step that every country must accept and implement the policy of “Education for All” in a limited future by 2015. On the other hand, stepping into free market economy system of Cambodia, as well as, a member of World Trade Organization, Cambodia need to upgrade his domestic human resources to reach to the expected level of efficiency or at least reaching to a developmental level that is able to work with other member countries and keeping his position of a member, as well as, his nation’s fame.
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